Mars Mission History In Brief

The Cydonia Investigation:

A Chronology of Significant Developments

Summer, 1976: NASA Viking imaging team, in particular Dr. Tobias Owen, notices curious "face" in Cydonia region of Mars. Dismisses all scientific significance.

Spring, 1979: Two independent investigators, DiPietro/ Molenaar, at Goddard Space Flight Center, "rediscover" Face, and curious near-by "pyramid." Perform first private (non-NASA) imaging enhancements and publish independent monograph, 1980: "Unusual Martian Surface Features."

Summer, 1983: Former NASA consultant, and Science Advisor to CBS News (Walter Cronkite), R. C. Hoagland, discovers first geometric "relationships" linking Face, Pyramid, and several other provocative objects at Cydonia: proposes existence of potential "intelligently-designed complex." Discovers potential "archaeoastronomical dating" of "complex": 0.5 million years BP.

Summer, 1983: Soviet research group, organized by Vladimir Avinsky, independenty focus on Face and associated "Cydonia pyramids" as potentially "of intelligent design." Publish in Moscow News.

Winter, 1983: Hoagland inaugurates (with Breck and Pozos) first formal multi-disciplinary investigation of "intelligence hypothesis" -- the Independent Mars Investigation (SRI, International), and the first nation-wide electronic "publication" and discussion of the data (via InfoMedia's "Notepad" computer conferencing system).

Summer, 1984: Presentation of Preliminary Conclusions of the Independent Mars Investigation Team at the July, 1984 "Case for Mars" Conference, University of Colorado, Boulder. Diverse reactions -- from NASA, media, etc. -- including curiously-timed claim by Soviet researchers (Avinsky et al) in August issue of "Soviet Life," to *independent discovery* (later verified) of "pyramids on Mars" and other elements of "Cydonia complex."

Fall, 1984 - Spring, 1985: First around-the-world Western media publicity (AP, UPI, Rueters, etc.) on continuing Cydonia investigation. Anonymous "tip" (as reader-response to stories appearing in British press) points Hoagland to potential significance of "e/pi relationship" to Cydonia latitude on Mars . . . Because of "sensational" tone of publicity, Investigation now asked to leave University of California (Berkeley).

Spring, 1985: Mark Carlotto (The Analytic Sciences Corporation, Reading, MA) joins "Mars Project," after seeing stories quoting Hoagland, Churchman, et al., re 2nd multidisciplinary Cydonia "Cal" (Berkeley) Investigation -- "Mars Investigation Group." Carlotto subsequently performs state-ofthe-art imaging enhancements and first three-D analysis of Face ( from original NASA Viking data), resulting in excerpts of draft paper and selected images appearing in "Monuments," 1987. Fullfledged publication of three-D analysis -- definitively eliminating "trick of light and shadow" as scientific explanation for Face -- follows in Applied Optics, Spring 1988.

Spring, 1986: Hoagland, Dr. David Webb (member of President's Space Commission), and Dr. Brian O'Leary, (former NASA scientist-astronaut), formally incorporate "The Mars Project" in California -- a non-profit research group designed to coordinate accelerating research into the "Mars anomalies."

Summer, 1987: Hoagland finally completes and publishes "The Monuments of Mars" (North Atlantic, 1987) -- highly detailed chronicle of personal discoveries and overview of 11 years of Cydonia research by all concerned, beginning with NASA's initial recognition of "unusual object" in 1976. "Monuments" establishes specific epistemological criteria -- geometric "relationship model" -- for definitively testing Intelligence Hypothesis at ALL imaging resolutions (see "Files").

Fall, 1987: Hoagland intensifies research into potential "terrestrial connection" for Mars data -- strongly implied by discovery of humanoid "face" on Mars and outlined initially in "Monuments." Exhaustive comparisons of ancient archaeological sites, myths, writing and numbering systems, anthropological and fossil evidence, and modern biological "dating" of hominid development undertaken, as part of deepening effort.

Winter, 1988: Brian O'Leary takes Carlotto-enhanced Cydonia imagery to Moscow for meeting with R. Sagdeev and other Soviet space scientists. Subject of discussion: specific request to Soviets to take *new* images of Cydonia -- during up-coming Soviet unmanned "Phobos" Mars mission, due to leave Earth, Summer, 1988; arrive Mars, Winter, 1989.

Spring, 1988: Carlotto three-D analysis and images of Face appear in May issue of Applied Optics. First refereed scientific publication of on-going Cydonia research (see "Files").

Summer, 1988: Mars Project holds first national press conference at National Press Club, Washington D.C. -- launch day of new Soviet Phobos mission to Mars. Reveals O'Leary's efforts to engage Soviets in Cydonia verification. Announces results of Carlotto's three-D analysis to general media. Enlarges "Mars problem" to include first indications of important objects *other * than Face -- through Hoagland's discoveries and proposal of "relationship model." Major favorable reaction from around the world -- The Washington Times to The China Daily, in Beijing! Hoagland invited to appear on major U.S and Canadian interview programs: "Good Morning American, "Nightwatch," etc., in response.

Fall, 1988: Erol Torun, geographer and geomorphologist with Defense Mapping Agency, after seeing National Press Club publicity, buys "Monuments." Decides to prove Hoagland's contention re specific geometric relationships at Cydonia, particularly statement concerning alleged symmetry of "D&M Pyramid," wrong. Discovers instead extraordinary series of * fundamental angular relationships* within Pyramid -- including redundant and mysterious mathematical relationship "e/pi!" Brilliantly vindicates, to one-part-in-a-thousand accuracy, "relationship model" for testing Intelligence Hypothesis (see "Files").

Fall, 1988: Hoagland, upon receiving Torun's new discoveries, remeasures entire Cydonia "complex" -- immediately verifying existence of same "dimensionless relationships," and specifically-derived constants *throughout* Cydonia, to same accuracy. Discovery proves "relationship model" verification in one object (D&M) *not* "a fluke." Instead, presents overwhelming statistical evidence for presence of intelligently-crafted,

highly redundant, mathematical "message" at Cydonia (see "Files").

Winter, 1988: Mert Davies (RAND), at Hoagland's request, remeasures Cydonia Complex in terms of refined (Viking) inertialframe coordinates. Using Davies' new control points, Hoagland discovers that mysterious "e/pi latitude" (ArcTan = 0.866 =

40.87 degrees N.) runs precisely *through* apex of D&M Pyramid! Davies asks key question: Why "e/pi" rather than "(sqrt3)/2"?

Winter, 1988: Major "political" breakthrough for

verification of these discoveries: NASA invites Hoagland to make formal presentation, "Was there Life on Mars? -- the Monuments Speak," to Goddard Spaceflight Center Engineering Colloquium, outside Washington D.C. Hoagland in turn invites Carlotto and Torun to join him in first major (2 1/2 hr) briefing for NASA scientists on provocative Cydonia results. (A 40-minute video of the "Goddard briefing," preserving this historic benchmark in an

unusual 13-year investigation, is available -- see RESOURCE directory.

Spring, 1988: Second major political breakthrough. Research associates of MARS MISSION invited to one-on-one meeting with

Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on

Science, Space and Technology, Robert A. Roe (D-New Jersey).

Hour-long briefing covers all data, and "political" obstacles

within NASA currently impeding fulfilment of scientific process

vis a vis Cydonia: verification of the Cydonia "intelligence hypothesis" via new high-resolution imagery, from NASA's next scheduled 1992 return mission -- Mars Observer. Outcome of

meeting: Roe requests memo from MARS MISSION, outlining steps recommended to secure verification (see POLITICS directory).

To Be Continued